Courtesy of Fleming Plastic Equipment
updated April 2014

Injection molding is a manufacturing process where plastic is forced into a mold cavity under pressure. A mold cavity is essentially a negative of the part being produced. The cavity is filled with plastic, and the plastic changes phase to a solid, resulting in a positive. Typically injection pressures range from 5000 to 20,000 psi. Because of the high pressures involved, the mold must be clamped shut during injection and cooling. Clamping forces are measured in tons.


Abbreviations for the Plastics Industry
 - Plastics, Preproducts and Rubbers

Courtesy of Fleming Plastic Equipment, an extract from their ancillary equipment catalogue.

AAS Methacrylate-acrylic-styren PEEK Polyaryletherketone
ABS Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene PEI Polyetherimide
ACM Acrylic acid ester rubber PEO, PEOX Polyethylene oxide
ADC Allyl diglycol carbonate PEPA Polyester block amides
AES Acrylonitrile-ethylene- propylene-styrene PEP Polyethylene-propylene
AMMA Acrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate PES Polyester sulphone
ANM Acrylic acid ester rubber PET, PETP Polyethylene terephthalate
APP Atactic polypropylene PETG Polyethylene terephthalate, glycol comonomer
ASA Acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylic ester PF Phenol formaldehyde
AXS Acrylonitrile-styrene- terpolymers PFA Perfluoro alkoxy alkaline
BR Cis-1, 4-polybutadiene rubber PFEP Polytetrafluorethylene- perfluoro-propylene
BS Butadiene-styrene rubber PFF Phenol-furfural
CA Cellulose acetate PI Polyimide
CAB Cellulose acetate-butyrate PIB Polyisobutylene
CAP Celluose acetate propionate PIBI Butyl rubber
CF Cresol formaldehyde PIR Polyisocyanate
CHR Epichlorhydrine PMCA Polymethyl - chloroacrylate
CMC Carboxymethyl cellulose PMI Polymethacryloimide
CN Cellulose nitrate PMP Poly- 4 -methylpentene-1
CP Cellulose propionate POM Polyoxymethylene, polyacetal
CPE Chlorinated polyethylene (correctly:PEC) PP Polypropylene
CPVC Chlorinated polyvinylchloride (correctly:PVCC) PPC Chlorinated polypropylene
CR Chloroprene rubber PPMS Polyparamethylstyrene
CS Casein PPO(S) Polyphenylene oxide (styrene)
CSM Chlorosulfonated polyethylene PPOX Polypropylene oxide
CTA Cellulose triacetate PPS Polyphenylene sulfide
DAP Diallyl phthalate PPSU Polyphenylene sulfone
EC Ethyl cellulose PS Polystyrene
ECB Ethylene-cop-bitumen PSB Styrene butadiene rubber
ECTFE Ethylene-chlorotrifluoro- ethylene PSU Polysulfone
EEA Ethylene-ethylacrylate PTFE Polytetrafluorethylene
EMA Ethylene-methacrylic acid PTP Polyterephthalates
EP Epoxy epoxide PUR Polyurethane
EPDM Ethylene-propylene teropolymer rubber PVAC Polyvinyl acetate
EPM Ethylene-propylene rubber PVAL Polyvinyl alcohol
EPS Expanded polystyrene PVB Polyvinyl butyral
ETFE Ethylene-tetrafluroethylene PVC Polyvinyl chloride
EVA, EVAC Ethylene-vinyl acetate PVCA Polyvinyl chloride-acetate
FEP Perfluoro ethylene-propylene PVCC Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
FF Furan formaldehyde PVDC Polyvinylidene chloride
GR-I Butyl rubber PVDF Polyvinylidene fluoride
GR-N Nitrile rubber PVFM Polyvinyl formal
GR-S Styrene-butadiene rubber PVK Polyvinyl carbazole
IIR Butyl rubber PVP Polyvinyl pyrrolidone
IPDI Isophorone diisocyanate RF Resorcin formaldehyde
IR Cis-1, 4-polyisoprene rubber SAN Styrene-acylonitrile
MBS Methylmethacrylate- butadiene- styrene SB Styrene-butadiene
MC Methyl cellulose SBR Styrene-butadiene rubber
MDI Diphenylmethane diisocyanate SI Silicone plastics
MF Melamine formaldehyde Si Silicone rubber
MMA Methylmethacrylate SMA Styrene-maleic anhydride
MPF Melamine-phenol- formaldehyde SMS Styrene - methylstyrene
NBR Nitrile rubber SRP Styrene-rubber-plastics
NC Cellulose nitrate TAC Triallylcyanurate
NR Natural rubber TFA Fluor-alkoxy-terpolymer
PA Polyamide (nylon) TDI Toluyl diisocyanate
PAA Polyacrylic acid TMDI Trimethyl-hexamethylene diisocyanate
PAI Poly-amideimide TPU Thermoplastic polyurethane
PAK Polyester alkyd TPX Polymethylpentene
PAN Polyacrylonitrile UF Urea formaldehyde
PB Polybutene-l UP Unsaturated polyester
PBAN Polybutadiene-acrylonitrile VAC Vinyl acetate
PBS Polybutadiene-styrene VC Vinyl chloride
PBTP Polybutylene therephthalate VCE Vinyl chloride-ethylene
PC Polycarbonate VCEVA Vinyl chloride-ethylene- vinyl acetate
PCD Polycarbodiimide VCOA Vinyl chloride-octylacrylate
PCTFE Polymonochlorotri fluoroethylene VCVAC Vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate
PDAP Polydiallyl phthalate VCVDL Vinyl chloride-vinylidene chloride
PE Polyethylene VF Vulcanized fibre
PEC Chlorinated polyethylene    

If products were square, reinforcement would be easy!

However, in real life nothing is square and we are continually confronted with a multitude of shapes. Products that are unique to each industry will go through various stresses, strains and impact scenarios. Heat, sunlight and colour can also add complexity let alone the number of components that will need to interact synergistically.

Working with Long Fibre thermoplastics offers:

Improved impact strength and physical properties.
Improved dimensional stability.
Improved high temperature stability.
Ease of processing.
Weight reduction.
Thinner wall sections.
Superior structural properties.
Giving rise to LFT being used in items traditionally made from SFT through to various metals.


Being able to identify high stress locations in a part and using modelling to predict how the fibres will orientate has allowed the design of parts with thinner walls to enable functionality, reduce weight and to improve overall performance primarily through:

Tailoring the fibre orientation in the direction of critical stresses.
Tailoring fibre content to the strength and stiffness required.
Tailoring melt flow in the mould to achieve desired fibre orientation and moving weld lines to areas of low stress.
Employing low shear moulding processes with generously sized runners and gates.
And utilising FEA and MFA analysis to design and test in the initial stages before tool construction begins.

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